CMRC Children's Memorial Research Center
Research highlights

First in a series of fact sheets about the research center.
Cancer Biology & Epigenomics Program

Mary J.C. Hendrix, PhD
Professor, Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine
Medical Research Institute Council Endowed Chair for the President and Scientific Director at the Children's Memorial Research Center

Postovit LM, Margaryan NV, Seftor EA, Kirschmann DA, Lipavsky A, Wheaton WW, Abbott DE, Seftor RE, Hendrix MJ. Human embryonic stem cell microenvironment suppresses the tumorigenic phenotype of aggressive cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Mar 18;105(11):4329-34.

A protein that governs development of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) also inhibits the growth and spread of malignant melanoma, the deadliest skin cancer. Metastatic melanoma, which develops from the transformation of skin pigment cells or melanocytes, has a death rate of more than 80 percent and a median survival of less than 7.5 months. Hendrix's lab, additionally found that the protein, called Lefty, prevents aggressive breast cancer cells from metastasizing. Death from metastatic breast cancer exceeded 40,000 in 2007, with over 180,000 new cases diagnosed in the United States. Importantly, Lefty is secreted only in hESCs, and not in any other stem cell type tested – including stem cells isolated from amniotic fluid, cord blood or adult bone marrow – or placental cells. Results of the study build on an elegant body of research by the Hendrix lab to identify the genes and cellular pathways involved in cancer metastasis.

Dawn A. Kirschmann, PhD
Research Associate Professor, Northwestern University's Feinberg School
of Medicine

Postovit LM, Abbott DE, Payne SL, Wheaton WW, Margaryan NV, Sullivan R, Jansen MK, Csiszar K, Hendrix MJ, Kirschmann DA. Hypoxia/reoxygenation: a dynamic regulator of lysyl oxidase-facilitated breast cancer migration. J Cell Biochem. 2008 Apr 1;103(5):1369-78.

Fluctuating oxygen levels characterize the microenvironment of many cancers and tumor hypoxia is associated with increased invasion and metastatic potential concomitant with a poor prognosis.  Similarly, the expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX) in breast cancer facilitates tumor cell migration and is associated with estrogen receptor negative status and reduced patient survival.  In this manuscript we demonstrate that hypoxia/reoxygenation drives poorly invasive breast cancer cells toward a more aggressive, motile phenotype by up-regulating LOX expression and catalytic activity.  Specifically, hypoxia markedly increased LOX protein expression; however, catalytic activity was significantly reduced under hypoxic conditions.  Clinically, LOX expression positively correlated with tumor progression and co-localization with hypoxic regions in ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma primary tumors.  However, positive correlation is lost in metastatic tumors, suggesting that LOX expression is independent of a hypoxic environment at later stages of tumor progression.  This work demonstrates that both hypoxia and reoxygenation are necessary for LOX catalytic activity which facilitates breast cancer cell migration; thereby illuminating a potentially novel mechanism by which poorly invasive cancer cells can obtain metastatic competency.

Zhila Khalkhali-Ellis, PhD
Research Assistant Professor, Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine

1. Biological Function of Maspin:
As a Co-PI on this NIH supported grant we are elucidating Maspin’s mechanism of action. This is achieved by identifying Maspin binding partners and studying their involvement in mammary tissue homeostasis and remodeling. The ultimate goal of this approach is to determine the role of these binding partners in breast cancer progression and metastasis. Two binding partners identified in our laboratory (IRF-6 and cathepsin D) have been the subject of extensive studies and have resulted in the following publications:

Bailey CM, Khalkhali-Ellis Z, Seftor EA, Hendrix MJ. Biological functions of maspin. J Cell Physiol. 2006 Dec;209(3):617-24.

Khalkhali-Ellis Z. Maspin: the new frontier. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Dec 15;12(24):7279-83.

Khalkhali-Ellis Z, Hendrix MJ. Elucidating the function of secreted maspin: inhibiting cathepsin D-mediated matrix degradation. Cancer Res. 2007 Apr 15;67(8):3535-9.

Bailey CM, Abbott DE, Margaryan NV, Khalkhali-Ellis Z, Hendrix MJ. Interferon regulatory factor 6 promotes cell cycle arrest and is regulated by the proteasome in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Mol Cell Biol. 2008 Apr;28(7):2235-43.

Khalkhali-Ellis Z, Abbott, DE, Bailey, CM, Goossens,W, Margaryan NV, Gluck, SL, Reuveni, M, Hendrix, MJC. INF-gamma regulation of vacuolar pH, Cathepsin D processing and autophagy in mammary epithelial cells. J Cell Biochem. (2007) (in revision).

2. We had previously identified that tamoxifen treatment (the most extensively utilized drug for breast cancer) results in re-expression of Maspin in breast cancer cell lines. This finding was also corroborated in patient’s tissue. The possibility that reactivation of Maspin is an epigenetic process is addressed through collaboration with Drs. Bento Soares and Fabricio Costa at Children’s Memorial Research Center. These studies could prompt the development of analogous compounds with directed and improved therapeutic efficacy and reduced adverse effects for breast cancer treatment.

3. In another collaborative project with Ophthalmology Department, University of Iowa we have evaluated the hypothesis that serum hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF) level could be a diagnostic/prognostic indicator in uveal melanoma progression. We have tested over 100 serum specimens from uveal melanoma patients for their HGF levels and are awaiting the patient information to finalize the study.

Christopher A Hamm
Graduate Student, Marcelo Bento Soares Laboratory

Hamm CA, Xie H, Seftor EA, Bonaldo MF, Soares MB. Treatment of rat chondrosarcoma cells with 5-Aza-2?-deoxycytidine results in global demethylation accompanied by changes in tumorigenicity [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 99th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2008 Apr 12-16; San Diego, CA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; 2008. Abstract nr 855.

5-aza-2’-deoxyctidine is a chemotherapeutic drug that can alter the epigenetic state of a cancer cell by inducing DNA demethylation. Treatment with 5-aza-2’-deoxyctidine results in the re-expression of genes that have become epigenetically silenced throughout tumorigenesis (ex. tumor suppressors). However, it is possible that 5-aza-2’-deoxyctidine may also induce the expression of epigenetically silenced genes that can promote tumor growth, but research in this area is currently limited.
We have treated a rat chondrosarcoma cell line with 5-Aza-2’-deoxycytidine. As expected, experiments indicate that 5-Aza-2’-deoxycytidine results in demethylation throughout the genome of the rat chondrosarcoma cells. But, both in vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that treatment with 5-Aza-2’-deoxycytidine may actually promote tumorigenesis. More specifically, treatment with 5-Aza-2’-deoxycytidine can transform a non-metastatic slow growing cell line into an aggressive cell line with metastatic potential. Experiments are currently under way to determine the genetic alterations that underlie this change in phenotype.

Developmental Biology Program

Sara C. Ahlgren, PhD
Assistant Professor, Pediatrics, Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine

Loucks EJ, Schwend T, Ahlgren SC. Molecular changes associated with teratogen-induced cyclopia. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2007 Sep;79(9):642-51.

Dr Ahlgren’s seminal observation that ethanol adversely effects the Sonic hedgehog signal transduction pathway provided a new way to look at the mechanisms of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Sonic hedgehog mutations are associated with holoprosencephaly, a form of human cyclopia. Her work has shown the importance of environmental exposures in this class of birth defects. In this paper, her group shows that teratogens can have specific molecular signatures with specific phenotypic consequences within this class of birth defects.

Jhumku D. Kohtz, PhD
Assistant Professor, Pediatrics, Northwestern University's Feinberg School
of Medicine

Feng J, Bi C, Clark BS, Mady R, Shah P, Kohtz JD. The Evf-2 noncoding RNA is transcribed from the Dlx-5/6 ultraconserved region and functions as a Dlx-2 transcriptional coactivator. Genes Dev. 2006 Jun 1;20(11):1470-84.

The role of non-coding RNA has been contentious in the field of molecular genetics. The elucidation of whole genome sequences has rendered the old notion that much of the genome has no function quaint. In this landmark paper, the Kohtz team firmly establishes a specialized form of non-coding RNA, ultraconserved long non-coding RNA, as a developmental regulator and provides a novel mechanism of action. The RNA works cooperatively with transcription factors to control gene expression.

Philip M. Iannaccone, MD, PhD
George M. Eisenberg Professor
Professor, Pediatrics, Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine
Senior Vice President and Deputy Director for Research--Basic Sciences
Director, Developmental Biology Program
Children's Memorial Research Center

Galat V, Zhou Y, Taborn G, Garton R, Iannaccone P. Overcoming MIII arrest from spontaneous activation in cultured rat oocytes. Cloning Stem Cells. 2007 Fall;9(3):303-14.

Oocyte activation is an important but poorly understood process that is required for fertilization to progress to early development. In some species, like the rat, this process seems to occur spontaneously if the oocyte is removed from the animal. Much can be learned about this step in development by trying to prevent it in those species in which spontaneous activation occurs. In this paper, Galat and Iannaccone’s team demonstrated that inhibiting the organization of microfilaments can prevent spontaneous activation in a reversible manner, and further showed that activation was dependent on the ovular age of the egg, offering the possibility of an oocyte maturation chronometer. The work has implications for cloning as well as reproductive physiology.

Mary Ann & J. Milburn Smith Child Health Research Program

Katherine Kaufer Christoffel, MD, MPH
Professor, Pediatrics and Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine
Attending Physician, Division of General Academic Pediatrics, Children's Memorial Hospital
Director, Center for Obesity Management and Prevention (COMP); Medical and Research Director, Consortium to Lower Obesity in Chicago Children, Children's Memorial Research Center

Christoffel KK. Firearm injuries: epidemic then, endemic now. Am J Public Health. 2007 Apr;97(4):626-9.

In the U.S., public and political attention to firearm injury prevention waned after the late 1990s. Data on patterns of firearm death and injury indicate that firearm injuries have moved into an endemic phase, with more or less stable rates. To help prevent epidemic flare-ups and to foster continued reductions in firearm injuries, strategies are now needed that are different from those developed during the epidemic phase of the mid 1980s-mid 1990s. Models can be built on approaches to other endemic conditions, such as influenza.

Olson LM, Christoffel KK, O'Connor KG. Pediatricians' involvement in gun injury prevention. Inj Prev. 2007 Apr;13(2):99-104.

To assess trends among U.S. pediatricians related to firearm injury prevention counseling practices and attitudes toward gun legislation, data were analyzed from surveys of members of the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1994 and 2000. Respondents in both years believed that violence prevention should be a priority for pediatricians (91.4% and 92.0%) and reported always or sometimes recommending handgun removal from the home (46.2% and 55.9%, respectively). In 2000, 74% of the respondents were comfortable discussing firearm safety; fewer thought they had sufficient training (32.7%) or time (27.5%) to discuss firearms. In 1994 and 2000, the likelihood of counseling on handgun removal was positively related to recent experience treating a gun injury, female sex and not owning a gun. In both years, more than 80% of pediatricians thought that gun control legislation or regulations would reduce injury and death.

Jones R, Flaherty E, Sege R, Christoffel K Kaufer, Binns H, Abney D, Slora E, Price, LL, Harris Clinicians' perceptions of factors influencing the reporting of suspected child abuse: A report of the Child Abuse Recognition Experience Study (CARES), in press, Pediatrics, 2008.

Primary care clinicians who participated in the Child Abuse Recognition Experience Study (CARES) did not report all children they suspected had been physically abused to Child Protective Services (CPS). 79 participating clinicians were interviewed, 39 who suspected child abuse but did not report the injury to CPS and 40 who reported suspicious injuries to CPS. Ethnographic techniques were used to identify major themes and sub-themes related to decision-making around reporting to CPS and alternative management strategies. Decisions about reporting to CPS were guided by injury circumstances and history, knowledge of and experiences with the family, consultation with others, and past experiences with CPS.

Ruchi Gupta, MD, MPH
Assistant Professor, Pediatrics, Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine
Attending Physician, Division of General Academic Pediatrics, Children's Memorial Hospital

Gupta RS, Zhang X, Sharp LK, Shannon JJ, Weiss KB. Geographic variability in childhood asthma prevalence in Chicago. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 Mar;121(3):639-45 e1.

Childhood asthma prevalence has been shown to be higher in urban communities overall without an understanding of differences by neighborhood. Our objective was to characterize the geographic variability of childhood asthma prevalence among neighborhoods in Chicago. Asthma screening was conducted among children attending 105 Chicago schools as part of the Chicago Initiative to Raise Asthma Health Equity. Surveys were geocoded and linked with neighborhoods. A total of 48,917 surveys were conducted and geocoded into 287 neighborhoods. Asthma prevalence among all children was 12.9%. Asthma rates varied among neighborhoods from 0% to 44% (interquartile range, 8% to 24%). Asthma prevalence (mean, SD, range) in predominantly black neighborhoods (19.9, 67, 4% to 44%) was higher than in predominantly white neighborhoods (11.4, 64.7, 2% to 30%) and predominantly Hispanic neighborhoods (12.1, 66.8, 0% to 29%). Childhood asthma prevalence varies widely by neighborhood within this urban environment. A better understanding of the effect of neighborhood characteristics may lend insight into potential interventions to reduce childhood asthma.

Jain T, Gupta RS. Trends in the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jul 19;357(3):251-7.

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was initially developed as part of in vitro fertilization (IVF) to treat male-factor infertility. However, despite the added cost, uncertain efficacy, and potential risks of ICSI, its use has been extended to include some patients without documented male-factor infertility. We analyzed national data on assisted reproductive technology reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, to determine temporal trends in the use of ICSI and IVF in the United States. Since 1995, the use of ICSI in the United States has increased dramatically, while the proportion of patients receiving treatment for male-factor infertility has remained stable. State-mandated health insurance coverage for IVF services is associated with greater use of ICSI for infertility that is not attributed to male-factor conditions.

Maryann Mason, PhD
Assistant Research Professor, Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine
Associate Director, Child Health Data Lab

Children's Memorial Research Center

Mason M, Christoffel K, Sinacore J. Reliability and validity of the injury prevention project home safety survey. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007 Aug;161(8):759-65.

This study evaluated the reliability and validity of the AAP's The Injury Prevention Project Safety Survey (TIPP --SS) in measuring injury prevention practices. Reliability is measured using the test/retest method. Validity is measured comparing results of parent completed TIPP SS and a home safety audit conducted in the participants' home at the time of survey. Subjects (n=88) come from two Chicago Public School (CPS) Early Childhood Education Program sites. One-half of the subjects (44) are English speaking, the other half (44) are Spanish speaking. All subjects had a child aged 3-5 years old attending one of two CPS Early Childhood Education Programs. Participants are split evenly between sites. For the reliability study primary caregivers completed the TIPP SS twice, 14-24 days apart. For the validity study, primary caregivers completed the TIPP SS during a home visit in which a research assistant completed a home safety audit. A total of 44 home visits were completed; 22 in Spanish; 22 in English. Main outcome measures were test/retest reliability and validity of the TIPP SS. Results are compared for agreement for individual items and the whole survey. Results indicate that the TIPP SS is reliable but not valid. These results suggest that the TIPP SS is measuring knowledge and attitudes rather than behavior. That is, parents are often aware of the desired behavior or condition and report those instead of actual conditions/behaviors. This suggests that the quest to develop a valid home-based injury prevention behavior assessment tool should continue and be done in a way that carefully addresses potential instruments’ validity and reliability.

Hui-Ju Tsai, MSc, MPH, PhD
Assistant Professor, Pediatrics, Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine

Tsai HJ, Liu X, Mestan K, Yu Y, Zhang S, Fang Y, Pearson C, Ortiz K, Zuckerman B, Bauchner H, Cerda S, Stubblefield PG, Xu X, Wang X. Maternal cigarette smoking, metabolic gene polymorphisms, and preterm delivery: new insights on GxE interactions and pathogenic pathways. Hum Genet. 2008 Mar 5 (in press) (Epub ahead of publication).

Preterm birth (PTB, less than 37 weeks of gestation) is a significant clinical and public health problem in the U.S. This study investigated the relationship between maternal smoking and metabolic genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1 and GSTT1 with PTB as a whole and preterm subgroups among 1,749 multi-ethnic mothers (571 with PTB and 1,178 controls) enrolled at Boston Medical Center. The findings were strongly evident that maternal smoking significantly increased the risk of PTB among women with high-risk CYP1A1 and GSTT1 genotypes. Such joint associations were strongest among PTB accompanied by histologic chorioamnionitis. Our data have raised the possibility that women at high risk of PTB can be identified by taking into account both environmental exposure and genetic variants, which will facilitate developing strategies in prevention and treatment of PTB.

Xiaobin Wang, MD, MPH, ScD
Professor of Pediatrics, the Feinberg School
Mary Ann & J. Milburn Smith Endowed Research Professor and
Director, Mary Ann & J. Milburn Smith Child Health Research Program
Children's Memorial Hospital and Children's Memorial Research Center

Wang X, Qin X, Demirtas H, Li J, Mao G, Huo Y, Sun N, Liu L, Xu X. Efficacy of folic acid supplementation in stroke prevention: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2007 Jun 2;369(9576):1876-82.

The efficacy of treatments that lower homocysteine concentrations in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease remains controversial. Our aim was to do a meta-analysis of relevant randomized trials to assess the efficacy of folic acid supplementation in the prevention of stroke. Folic acid supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stroke by 18% (RR 0·82, 95% CI 0·68–1·00; p=0·045). In the stratified analyses, a greater beneficial effect was seen in those trials with a treatment duration of more than 36 months (0·71, 0·57–0·87; p=0·001), a decrease in the concentration of homocysteine of more than 20% (0·77, 0·63–0·94; p=0·012), no fortification or partly fortified grain (0·75, 0·62–0·91; p=0·003), and no history of stroke (0·75, 0·62–0·90; p=0·002). In the corresponding comparison groups, the estimated RRs were attenuated and insignificant.

Wang B, Necheles J, Ouyang F, Ma W, Li Z, Liu X, Yang J, Xing H, Xu X, Wang X. Monozygotic co-twin analyses of body composition measurements and serum lipids. Prev Med. 2007 Nov;45(5):358-65.

This study evaluated BMI and direct measures of body fat (BF) and lean body mass (LBM) in relation to fasting serum lipid profiles in a large Chinese population based twin sample using a monozygotic (MZ) co-twin analysis. Adiposity measures collected 1998–2000 on 987 MZ female 20–60 year old twin pairs (n=1974) included BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist/hip ratio (WHR), LBM, trunk fat (TF), %TF, total BF, and % total BF (measured by DEXA). Serum lipids included total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL, and HDL. In this lean population with a mean BMI 21.8 (2.8), we observed considerable variability in adiposity measures and serum lipids. A positive linear association between all adiposity measures with LDL, TC, and TG, and a negative linear association with HDL was observed. A 1-unit z-score increase of adiposity measures, reflecting fat distribution, was associated with increases in (mmol/L) TC (0.063 to 0.164), LDL (0.064 to 0.131), TG (0.049 to 0.164), and a decrease in HDL (0.021 to 0.038) while controlling for matched factors within twin pairs (i.e., age and unmeasured confounders). However, similar associations were not observed for LBM. We conclude that it is the BF (not LBM) that appears to be associated with serum lipid profiles. This study underscores that in populations where BMI is highly correlated with BF, BMI can be used as a surrogate for BF in evaluating risk of dyslipidemia. Otherwise, direct measures of BF are needed.

Yu Y, Lu BS, Wang B, Wang H, Yang J, Li Z, Wang L, Liu X, Tang G, Xing H, Xu X, Zee PC, Wang X. Short sleep duration and adiposity in Chinese adolescents. Sleep. 2007 Dec 1;30(12):1688-97.

This report investigated the relationship between sleep duration and adiposity measurements in rural Chinese adolescents. This report is based on a cross-sectional analysis of 500 Chinese adolescent twins. Anthropometric measurements and direct adiposity measurements using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were taken for all subjects. Standard sleep questionnaires and a 7-day diary were administered to assess sleep duration. Graphic plots showed that among females, both long and short sleepers tended to have higher adiposity measures than medium duration sleepers. The association of short sleep duration with higher adiposity measures was significant even after adjustment for covariates. This association was stronger for total and truncal fat and waist circumference (P <0.05) than for BMI (P = 0.06). In contrast, consistent relationships between sleep duration and adiposity measures were not seen in males. We conclude that even in this relatively lean Chinese adolescent cohort, short sleep duration was significantly associated with higher adiposity measures and lower lean body mass in females. The results of this study indicate that the observed association between short sleep duration and higher BMI is most likely mediated by factors associated with total and central adiposity rather than lean body mass.

Wang H, Story RE, Venners SA, Wang B, Yang J, Li Z, Wang L, Liu X, Tang G, Xing H, Xu X, Wang X. Patterns and interrelationships of body-fat measures among rural chinese children aged 6 to 18 years. Pediatrics. 2007 Jul;120(1):e94-e101.

This is a cross-sectional study of 2,493 subjects aged 6-18 years from a population-based cohort of twin pairs. Measures of adiposity included BMI, WC and DEXA based measurements of total body fat (TBF), percentage body fat (%BF=TBF/weight), trunk fat (TF), and percentage trunk fat (%TF=TF/TBF). In females, BMI, WC, TBF, %BF, TF, and %BF all increased linearly with age. In males, BMI and WC increased linearly with age, but TBF, %BF, and TF did not change significantly with age. In both genders, %TF reached a nadir around 12 years of age and then increased with age. Prior to puberty (6-11 years), BMI and WC were highly correlated with TBF, %BF, and TF in both genders. During puberty (12-18 years), the correlations between BMI and each of TBF, %BF, TF, and %TF were higher in females than in males. Similar trends were found in the correlations between waist circumference and each of the adiposity measures derived from DEXA. In this relatively lean rural Chinese population, BMI and WC are highly correlated with each other and are good surrogates of TBF, BF%, and TF as measured by DEXA in pre-pubertal children of both genders and in pubertal females. However, both BMI and WC overestimate total and trunk fat, especially, %BF in males aged 12 and older.

Kumar R, Yu Y, Story RE, Pongracic JA, Gupta R, Pearson C, Ortiz K, Bauchner HC, Wang X. Prematurity, chorioamnionitis, and the development of recurrent wheezing: A prospective birth cohort study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 Apr;121(4):878-84 e6.

This study investigated the relationship of prematurity and chorioamnionitis with the development of early childhood recurrent wheezing. The Boston Birth Cohort (n=1096) were followed prospectively from birth onward. Perinatal and postnatal clinical data and placental pathology were collected. The primary outcome was recurrent wheezing. Secondary outcomes included physician-diagnosed asthma, food allergy, and eczema. Preterm children were grouped by gestational age into moderately (33-36.9 weeks) and very preterm (<33 weeks) with and without chorioamnionitis, and compared with term children without chorioamnionitis (reference group). Chorioamnionitis was diagnosed either by intrapartum fever or by placental histology findings. Prematurity was associated with recurrent wheezing (odds ratio [OR], 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.6). However, when subjects were grouped by degree of prematurity with or without chorioamnionitis, the highest risk of wheezing (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 2.0-8.0) and physician-diagnosed asthma (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 2.2-8.7) was present in the very preterm children with chorioamnionitis. The effect on both wheezing (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 2.4-12.0) and asthma (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.3-11.9) was greater in African Americans. Neither prematurity nor chorioamnionitis was associated with food allergy or eczema.

Research Center Publications Lists

Note: Each citation hyperlinks to the PubMed citation.

Click here for a list of all publications from 2008-present.

Click here for a list of all publications from 2007-2008.
Click here for a list of all publications from 2006-2007.
Click here for a list of all publications from 2005-2006.
Click here for a list of all publications from 2004-2005 (July-June).